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Can Behavioral Science Inform Social Engineering?

 

 

Cambridge Saloon Salon, Redline Restaurant, February 27, 2006

W. Curtiss Priest, Ph.D., MIT/CITS, BMSLIB@MIT.EDU

 

 

Each of us sees this world through our own perspective.  For example, in the ‘20s, the dark clouds of coal smoke, engulfing Pittsburgh, were often seen as a sign of progress.  Later, especially those who lost family to ills of air pollution, saw the world differently.

 

Similarly, the Behavioral Scientist sees and filters the world by a set of perspectives, called operational definitions and models, and some situations seem self-evident to this person, when others see the world differently.  This is not to say that I wish everyone to see the world as vividly as does such a scientist, for, anyone attuned to the world that closely sees much that is wrong, and that witnessing can disturb one’s peace of mind.

 

We need not look far for evidence of this.  Today, the Boston Globe published a letter from Linda Gosselin of Hamilton, MA, “Conservatives have more fun. (p. A10)” I think of a line in Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 where a woman is viewing her interactive TV and, at a point in the programming, a person turns towards the camera and says, “what do you think, Linda?”  So, not only am I envious that this Linda is dumb and happy, but, I am amused at the inadvertent joke of the matter.  This Linda says “[l]et’s think about the environment.  Liberals believe we’ve ruined the earth and it’s just a matter of time before it is uninhabitable.”  Oh my.  Yes, indeed, Dennis and Donella Meadows wrote Limits to Growth, and a recent review of the simulation suggests that the Meadows were quite correct.  Now, as whether we are at a limit to growth backs into questions about, for example, the supply of fossil fuels, as one issue, and these issues are quite volatile, I don’t wish to challenge anyone who, possibly envisions two billion Chinese driving SUVs into the sunset.

 

There has been a strong tendency for many to believe that to understand a problem, one should decompose the problem into smaller, more imaginable pieces.  However, a proponent of Systems’ Thinking will inform you that this may obscure the very overall behavior you wish to conceive.  A dear tutor, Russell Ackoff, asks (2003) -- would you try to understand the automobile in the current environment by pulling the engine and studying it?

 

I believe one’s gut reaction is to say, “no.”  Now, let’s digress for a moment about gut reactions.  A recent study says, “Shopping? Trust your gut instinct.”  (study by researchers at the University of Amsterdam that focused on how people make shopping decisions, The Telegraph, February 17th, 2006).

 

As I am digressing, I also must say that a behavioral scientist is sometimes deplored by the gut reaction, for, if the “decision maker” were to take the “critical success factors” and using a computer, assign weights and scores, most people will more correctly make the correct choice using the decision support system than if they rely on their gut reaction, and by combining the two, as Bayes would assert (see Bayes' Theorem), would make an even more efficient choice.

 

So.  The behavioral scientist finds him or her self up against many who act solely on instinct.  And as any social engineering problem typically involves many more than the seven factors that are handled by conscious decision making, the behavioral scientist is in the dilemma of telling people to not believe their gut response.  This dilemma is compounded by the very nature of complex social problems.  While the behavioral scientist can define, say, what gives any of us a sense of happiness, the behavioral scientist lacks any leverage to ensure that the overall happiness, as promised by the US Constitution, “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness,” will actually increase.

 

Returning to earth, I had read Cathy Young’s editorial in the Boston Globe (Oct. 17, 2006, p. A15) called “The problem of poverty.”  I say, including quoting Ms. Young, “Yes, poverty is partly due to culture, legacy, and defeating behaviors.  However, Young misses one fundamental aspect of human behavior which, naturally, leads everyone in the direction of accomplishment. (Oct. 30, 2005, p. E12).”  I mention Russell Ackoff’s work from the University of Pennsylvania’s “Management and Behavioral Science Center.”  Ackoff, in 1967, was a distant mentor to me while studying at RPI.  He had written what I considered, and still consider, the most informative book I have ever read.  Please consult the handout, and in the “Systems Approach” column, 1960-1969, you will find Choice, Communication, and Conflict.  About 10 years ago, when the Internet was young, I posted this commentary at Amazon about what was now named On Purposeful Systems.

 

In 1970, I taught from this book when it was entitled Choice, Communication and Conflict What makes this book "magical" is Ackoff (from his management and behavioral science roots) provides "operational definitions" for many ill-defined words
and concepts -- from defining 'knowledge' & 'understanding' to providing definitions of feelings/emotions that --
operationally -- you know -- that if certain events take place in a person's life, that you know the feeling they have.

 

This is only a glimmer of what this book is about. In terms of Kuhn's idea of "paradigm shifts" -- this book represents a shift that has yet to be appreciated, thirty years later!

 

So, returning to Ms. Young’s article, she has sided too much with nurture (vs. nature).  There is clearly a genetic disposition for “achieving valued outcomes.”  Via the culture we are informed of what is highly valued.  Over millions of years, whatever is valued, be it hunting for food, finding a mate, or having “high civic standards” and realizing those, we mentally receive a gratification token each and every time we achieve a valued outcome.  And, due to our cognitive abilities, we not only sense that reward, but, we have a very clear sense of how important that outcome is; how difficult it was to achieve that outcome; and so receive a token that is commensurate.  Compare the token perceived when kicking a stone to hit the far curb of a street with the token of having mortgaged one’s house, is on the brink of bankruptcy, and another firm  buys your company, your work, for a large sum of money.  Notice.  You haven’t spent the money.  Further, it is not altogether clear that you will be happier with more money, but, the symbolic reward, i.e., the recognition of the very values that propelled you to creation, is what truly satisfies.

 

Returning to Ms. Young, when I wrote, I mentioned a parallel.  A drug dealer provides false tokens of happiness, from alcohol to heroin.  We have a social problem.  Those buying drugs are not only falsely lead, but they are pushed into crime to get money that they can’t get, via normal, paid accomplishment.  Meanwhile, the drug dealer/lord, does not need his/her own product.  As I say, So Young’s drug dealer with a higher source of status [well-being] results, partly, because his happiness is derived from providing those around him with a feeling of false happiness.

 

Would the drug dealer be able to continue if he/she held values of virtuosity?  If he/she did, the dealer would, at the least, be very conflicted.  Notice in the handout, Ackoff’s original title contained the word conflict.  What causes conflict is when the desire to achieve valued outcomes conflict, either with one’s other valued outcomes or with the valued outcomes of others.  We know this.  It is, in part, the dictum to do no harm to others.

 

Now, dictums, proverbs, myths, quotations often embody an essential suggestion about how to live a good life, and, the good life is not just defined by being heroic or very religious – it is defined by (the luck) of having good values passed along via one’s family and/or the culture, and those values, say, generosity or honesty, are actually secondary values.  They, to Ackoff, are “Instrumental Values.”  While, certainly, we receive a tiny token of reward by acting honestly, if we value honesty, we garnish a much more wholesome life because others will trust you, and trust leads to others sharing their lives with you.  To use the “operational definition,” of an instrumental value, “A person, say, Bob, has a higher probability of achieving consumptive valued outcomes when he has the trait of honesty”  (cf. Bertocci & Millard, Personality and the Good: Psychological and Ethical Perspectives, 1963).

 

And, one of the benefits of employing behavioral science is that everything is carefully defined.  Let’s take the role of money.  An economist is very preoccupied with money, per se.  How does it reward work?  How does a tax disincentive discourage bad kinds of behavior?  But, the Behavioral Scientist is interested in how does a sufficient amount of money permit a person (or family, or community) to achieve valued outcomes?  In such a world, money is not the goal.  Money, like instrumental values, is simply a means to an end.  We call such means, “co-producers.”  But, not all co-producers are as “mercenary.”  Let’s take the operational definition of “love.”  “A person, say, Bob, loves another person, say, Susan, if Bob, via co-production, is better able to achieve valued outcomes, and  if Bob is dissatisfied with Susan’s states of dissatisfaction and satisfied with Susan’s states of satisfaction.”  And, if Susan can say the same of Bob, we have mutual love.  (Often definitions like this, which involve relationships that have strong affective and emotional components, are felt by many to be sterile.  States of satisfaction or dissatisfaction encompass both the full range of human emotion and whatever genetic dispositions we have in the matter.  Indeed, Chapter 6 of On Purposeful Systems is titled:  Evaluation the Situation:  Feelings and Attitudes (p. 100, Aldine edition).  And Ackoff carefully defines satisfaction, and dissatisfaction, to encompass the fullest range of every vector force [borrowing from Kurt Lewin] that encompasses these quasi cognitive/affective states of mind.)

 

The behavioral scientist has no problem understanding whether couples stay together or divorce.  Susan divorces Bob, or Bob divorces Susan, when the co-production is insufficient and/or when the “support” isn’t there.

 

However, as much as the behavioral scientist understands couples, families, communities, or, say, nations, there has not been a clear recognition that those who “stand in judgement” are very much influenced by this science.  Yes, certain forms of psychology that better recognize the wisdom of behavioral science, such as NLP (Neurolinguistic Programming), can have extraordinarily better successes in, say, couples therapy.  But, behavioral science is not, simply the addition of psychology + the social sciences.  In 1970, a key contributor to Ackoff’s works, Eric Trist, wrote an article to introduce French social scientists to the concepts that which primarily derived from Andras Angyal (psychiatrist, 1920s) and Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1932).  You will find the details of this in the Trist article, Andras Angyal and Systems Thinking, consult handout, Planning for Human Systems, 1992.

 

As another illustration, do read Pursuing Happiness (The New Yorker, Feb. 27, 2006, pp. 78-81).  Mr. Lancaster, the article’s author, claims to explore the “fragility of contentment.”  One statement suggests happiness is haphazard, and writes “This view of happiness is essential tragic:  it sees life as consisting of the things that happen to you; if more good things than bad happen, you are happy.”  What is clear is that Mr. Lancaster, nor the two authors, Mr. Haidt and Mr. McMahon, have a clue what truly produces happiness.  (It has been my experience that those who call themselves philosophers are actually very uninformative, and the actual philosophers, such as Ackoff or Boulding, hold different titles.)

 

Finally, how did the father of (Operational) Social Systems Thinking, Russell Ackoff, summarize what he knew about Social Engineering, just recently?  In 2003, he published with a senior colleague, Sheldon Rovin, Redesigning Society, 2003. After a brief introduction to the application of systems thinking to Society and Its Design, the authors tackle:     

One key distinction is made between growth and development.  Growth is not valued unless it truly leads to development.  Development can occur without growth.  In our current era, growth is used to wallpaper over ills of society.  As we have no coherent way to guarantee employment, we know that if the economy grows (via GDP), that there will be, at least, more jobs.  However, it is not clear that simply sanctioning growth because it cures some ills is wise.  There are truly limits to growth even if we cannot agree quite when and where those limits will appear.

 

And, written 37 years after Choice, Communication and Conflict, we witness something quite interesting about this book.  Russ Ackoff, and Rovin, sound more like Peter Drucker than like the authors who participated in the initial creations of Behavioral Science.  Yes, there is an admonition to see each social problem as part of a system, and to see their parts only as they interact as a system.  But, prescriptions for the redesign, while quite precise and based on much wisdom, do not easily derive from the science.  Rather, one senses that these two giants, with over forty years of consulting to business and government, present highly refined rubrics to present a design in 184 pages.

 

What I sense is the over “7 factors” problem.  Every problem begging for social engineering involves hundreds of significant factors.  And, while I have been involved with, say, Jay Forresters’s work at MIT on World Dynamics, I have yet to see an effort that is sufficiently funded and sufficiently guided, to promise an improved society.  What I am confident of is that were someone to fund an expansion of Behavioral Science, which includes the “critical success factors” work at MIT by Jack F. Rockart of the Center for Information Systems Research, where more than 7 factors can be considered, Behavioral Science would easily inform Social Engineering.

 

Epilogue

 

The talk, as of now, was last night.  I was very pleased to have the impetus to review the literature and Mr. Clark was very pleased to hear about a “science-based” way to cure societal ills.  There was a rousing audience discussion and when one fellow asked of John R. Platt who had been this fellow’s professor at Harvard, and asked why Platt was not on the handout, I professed to having borrowed most of the chart from a colleague, and then, taking my 1972 RPI doctoral dissertation, The Need and Value of Restructuring Human Communication Systems, I turned to my bibliographic section I (System’s Approach and Writings with Wide Scope), and read off 3 citations I had made of Platt’s work, including his 1969 article in Science, What We Must Do.  So, we agreed to his significance and relevance.

 

Further, the audience wanted to hear what “can we do.”  To respond to about a dozen such questions, I found myself, again and again, citing from Ackoff’s recently published, Redesigning Society.  Why?  Because while Platt and many others asked for societal redesign in the ‘60s and ‘70s, those voices disappeared over the last 25 years.  For example, when was the last time you heard someone professing, Small is Beautiful?  In a world economy driven by economies of scale (and scope), small is likely not profitable.

 

On the socio-political side, we have lacked great leadership for several decades.  Ackoff (2003) distinguishes growth from development as I described above.  The final chapter to his book is entitled “Leading Development.”  Now, this is a remarkable chapter title in two ways.  First, by disentangling development from growth, we are propelled to seek true solutions to societal problems rather than letting an ever increasing GDP paper over much of those problems.  Second, by asking for “leading” or “leadership,” Ackoff reveals that in his forty or so years of providing management consulting to hundreds of corporations, he understood that people with vision, and who guide, are necessary leaders for the process of development.

 

So, audience questions lead this author to describing a second serious failing in the application of social engineering – the lack of public leadership.  As one in the audience said, at least in a firm, the goals are fairly obvious as the product line is quite defining.  And, as such a result, even Senge (1990, below) admits to entering Forrester’s Systems Dynamics Group with a strong passion for the public sector, but that he only found an audience for his “learning organization” perspective in the private sector.  Now, I believe that if Ackoff had become a US Senator, he might have brought leadership to achieving social visions.  But, one reason Ackoff speaks with high validity is the result of his many years of management consulting.  Not only was the Wharton Management and Behavioral Science Center renamed the Busch Center, but, in the laudatory essays of Busch III and Pritzker, this world renown corporation spoke with the highest respect for Ackoff’s assistance (Planning for Human Systems).  In contrast, who, today, pays tribute to any bold leadership in the public sector?  Who is there to pay tribute to?  As Ackoff describes (2003), we have an extremely ineffective way of electing “leaders” and the process has become so money-intensive as to allow no separate, independent voices that serve a constituency that has no one to vote for and can only vote against the most offensive candidate.

 

Finally, my sponsor, the Center for Naturalism brought to my attention another reason for asking me to speak at their Salon.  Naturalism, in brief, is a perception of the world based on how it naturally occurs.  So, it is not a religion, and thus Naturalism looks for the science of ethics as a way to inform members, and citizens of society, about the requisites of living the “Good Life.”  And, the good life is not living “high on the hog,” but, rather, exhibiting the many virtues and traits that grease the wheels of community (see Bertocci, above).  For example, whether within a religion or within a group that realizes that altruism is an essential part of greasing the wheels, there are “altruism enforcers.”  Indeed, a “good family” revolves around the constant, iterative process of, yes, instilling an entire set of “instrumental values” that are instrumental to each of us – by being instrumental to the entire community.  As one very savvy co-worker said to me in 1973, “What comes around, goes around.”

 

Note: referenced books appear in the text and the table below.  In addition, the Bateson work (below) at the Menlo Park, Palo Alto Behavioral Center gave rise to Paul Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson, Pragmatics of Human Communication, 1967.  Also, out of the School of Labor and Industrial Relations at Michigan State University, came Beliefs, Attitudes and Values: A Theory of Organization and Change by Milton Rokeach (1968).

 

So, when I teach this behavioral science, as a whole I teach these five great books, in this order:

 

¨       Ashby, Introduction to Cybernetics (http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASHBBOOK.html)

¨       Ackoff, On Purposeful Systems (just republished by Transaction Publishers)

¨       Watzlawick, Pragmatics of Human Communication

¨       Rokeach, Beliefs, Attitudes and Values

¨        Bertocci & Millard, Personality and the Good

 

And, at the Salon it was suggested I might add this book to my list:

 

¨        Matt Ridley, The Origins of Virtue: Human Instincts and the Evolution of Cooperation (Viking, 1997)


 

                Can Behavioral Science Inform Social Engineering?

Cambridge Saloon Salon, Redline Restaurant, February 27, 2006, W. Curtiss Priest, Ph.D., MIT/CITS, BMSLIB@MIT.EDU

The Origins and Purposes of Several Traditions in Systems Theory and Cybernetics (Stuart A. Umpleby, Eric B. Dent, Cybernetics and Systems, 1999)<div align="left">

 

<span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Table 1.</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> Chronological Listing of a Sampling of Important Historical Contributions to Cybernetics and Systems Thinking (modified, Priest, Feb. 2006)</span>

<span style="font-size: 6.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 6.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 6.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 6.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 6.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 6.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 6.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 6.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Year</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">General Systems Theory</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">The Systems Approach</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Operations Research</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">System Dynamics</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Organizational Learning</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Total Quality Management</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Cybernetics</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">1939-1949</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Von Neumann,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Theory of Games</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Shewhart</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Statistical Method</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Juran</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Bureaucracy</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Juran</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Management of Inspection</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">McCulloch,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   “A Logical Calculus”</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Wiener</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Cybernetics</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Shannon</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Mathematical Theory</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">1950-1959</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Boulding</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   The Image</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Churchman,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Operations Research</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Luce,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Games and Decisions</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Brown</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Statistical Forecasting for Inventory Control</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Simon</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Models of Man</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Juran</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Case Studies</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Feigenbaum</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   </span><span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">“The Challenge of TQ Control”</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Wiener</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Human Use of Human Beings</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Turing</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> “</span><span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Computing Machinery”</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Ashby</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Design for a Brain</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">1960-1969</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Rapoport</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Fights, Games and Debates</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Duetsch</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Nerves of Government</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Buckley,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Modern Systems Research</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span lang="DE" style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Von Bertalanffy</span>

<span lang="DE" style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   General System Theory</span>

<span lang="DE" style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span lang="DE" style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Klir</span>

<span lang="DE" style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   </span><span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Approach to GST</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Churchman</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Prediction and Optional Decision</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Churchman</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Prediction and Optional Decision</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Ackoff</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Choice, Communicaton and Conflict</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Saaty</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Elements of Queueing Theory</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Ackoff,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Manager’s Guide to OR</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Dantzig</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Linear Programming</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Machol</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   System Engineering Hdbk.</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Boguslaw</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   The New Utopians</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Raifa</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Decision Analysis</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Forrester</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Industrial Dynamics</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Forrester</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Urban Dynamics</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Schon</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Technology and Change</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Deming</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Sample Design in Business Research</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Juran</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Managerial Breakthrough</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Ashby</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Introduction to Cybernetics[1956, 1964]</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Von Foerster,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Principles of Self-Organization</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">McCulloch,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Embodiments of Mind</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Beer</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Decision and Control</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Brown</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Laws of Form</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">1970-1980

(plus 1990, 1992, 1996 & 2003)</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Howard</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Paradoxes of Rationality</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Jantsch</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Design for Evolution</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Weinberg </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   General Systems Thinking </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Odum,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Energy Basis for Man and Nature</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Miller</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Living Systems</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Boulding</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Ecodynamics</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Churchman</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Design of Inquiring Systems</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Priest</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Restructuring Human Communication Systems</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Ackoff</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   On Purposeful Systems</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Checkland</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Systems Thinking</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Ackoff </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Creating the Corporate Future <span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">
[cf. Planning for Human Systems, 1992, Redesigning Society, 2003] </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Box,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Time Series Analysis</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Quade,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   “History of Cost-effectiveness Analysis”</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Christofides</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   “Optimum Traversal of a Graph”</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Waddington</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   OR in WWII</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Kleinrock</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Queueing Systems</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Shafer</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Mathematical Theory of Evidence</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Forrester</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   World Dynamics</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Meadows,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   The Limits of Growth</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Meadows</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Dynamics of Growth</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Mesarovic</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Mankind at the Turning Point</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Goodman </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Study Notes in System Dynamics</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Priest </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Creating Learning Communities (Section IV)</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Allison</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Essence of Decision</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Argyris,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Theory in Practice</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Argyris</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   “Single-Loop and Double-Loop Models”</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Argyris,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Organizational Learning</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Schon</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">“Organizational Learning”</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Revans</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Action Learning</span> <span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Senge</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   The Fifth Discipline, 1990</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Juran</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Quality Planning and Analysis</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Ishikawa </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Guide to Quality Control</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Crosby</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Quality is Free</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Schlesinger</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Quality of Work Life and the Supervisor</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Bateson</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Steps to an Ecology of Mind</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Beer</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Brain of the Firm</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Beer</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Platform for Change</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Conant,</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Mechanisms of Intelligence</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana"> </span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Von Foerster</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">   Observing Systems</span>

<span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Verdana">Note: An author’s name followed by a comma indicates that there are co-authors. See the reference section for complete citation.</span>

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