Consciousness - phenomenal experience such as sensations, emotions, and other qualitative subjective states - poses an intriguing and as yet unsolved problem for naturalists seeking a unified picture of the world. We know conscious experience arises in conjunction with certain neural goings on in our brains, but there is no consensus in the philo-scientific, naturalist community about why it should arise, or how.

Hodgson’s Black Box

In seeking to establish the existence of what he calls a ‘plain person’s free will’, David Hodgson adduces 8 conditions, the joint satisfaction of which would, he claims, result in our having such free will (proposition 9 asserts this conclusion).  The plain persons’ conception of free will, Hodgson says, is the libertarian conception, in which it is incompatible with determinism.  Although what ordinary people actually believe about free will is an empirical matter in need of research, it’s likely that many people (but not all) have at least a vague


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